A patent application provides an exclusive right to the applicant to prevent third parties from commercially exploiting the technical aspects and features of an invention embodied in the patent claims.

Different types of protections available for inventions such as utility models may confer comparable rights to the applicant. A patent application provides a certain degree of provisional protection, which ceases to be effective if the application is refused.

Different patent systems may provide third party obvervations or post-grant oppositions to be filed during examination or opposition procedures. In this respect, decisions of a first instance department of a patent granting authority can be challenged before a second instance department.

Patents granted under a regional system often require further procedural steps to validate the grant decision in specific countires.

After a grant decision is obtained, legal enforcement of patent rights and litigation may become critical to prevent infringement or revoke a patent which would otherwise cause damage to the client.

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